By Dr Johan F. Witte, Prof. Kofi A. A. Makinwa, Prof. Johan H. Huijsing (auth.)
Dynamic Offset-Compensated CMOS Amplifiers describes the idea, layout and cognizance of dynamic offset compensated CMOS amplifiers. It makes a speciality of the layout of general-purpose wide-band operational amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers.
Two offset reimbursement ideas are defined: auto-zeroing and slicing. a number of topologies are mentioned, with which those ideas can be utilized within the layout of wide-band dynamic offset-compensated amplifiers. 4 implementations are mentioned intimately: low-offset wide-band operational amplifiers, a low-offset instrumentation amplifier, and a low-offset current-sense amplifier, that can feel the present drawn from provide voltages as much as 28V .
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Additional info for Dynamic Offset Compensated CMOS Amplifiers
This chopper ripple can be reduced by applying both auto-zeroing and chopping techniques, as will be shown in the next section. There are also methods that use a sample and hold, which samples the chopper ripple at the output of the integrator. Two examples will be given in this section. In figure 3-12 an implementation of the nested Miller compensated topology shown in figure 3-6 is depicted. An extra low-pass filter is implemented with a switched capacitor notch filter, which is composed of the R1 V2 R2 + C11 - Vin+ - ++ G2 - - - CH2 V4 + - C51 CH1 ++ F1 F1 C53 F2 G4 F2 - - FC Cp4 F C F2 F1 F2 C54F1 C52 G1 + + Vout C12 + C31 I3 -+ C3 +G- 3 C32 Fig.
31 Dynamic Offset Compensation Techniques Cgd alu drain connection Id Cgs Cgs alu gate connection poly gate alu source connection Is channel charge drain diffusion alunimum bulk connection source diffusion diffusion Well Fig. 2-19 Charge injection model. In figure 2-19 the channel charge injection and parasitic capacitive feed-through are modelled. When the transistor is open, a layer of minority carriers exists under the gate between the source and drain of the transistor. This charge can be expressed for a NMOS switch as: qinj, ch = ( Vgs –VT )WLCox .
19] by using a low-pass filter behind the amplifier to shape the spikes. It achieved a 1 µV offset with a 6 kHz modulator frequency. However, a mismatch between the shape of the spike and the delay still causes residual offset. Another approach, which is simpler to implement, is shown in figure 2-25c. In this dead-band or guard-band approach, the output voltage is not modulated while the spike is present. 14] for custom read out electronics for sensors. 21], an amplifier with an average 200 nV input offset was realised.