Accid. Anal. - Nucl. Powerplants w. Graphite-Moderated BW

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TABLE 7. 0 The maximum permissible pressures in the ALS and other compartments at Smolensk 1 and 2 and Kursk 3 and 4 are presented in Table 8. Leaktight compartments have safety valves with an opening pressure difference of 270 kPa. Opening them allows the steam and gas mixture to be vented from the ALS to the atmosphere. The ALSs at Leningrad 3 and 4 and Ignalina 1 and 2 operate in the following manner: in the case of MCC pipe breaks inside leaktight compartments or in DGH–LWL compartments, the steam and gas mixture will be vented into the accident localization tower (ALT) via a steam discharge passage.

3. 1. Initiating events Loss of in-house electric power supply results in tripping of all pumps (for example MCPs, feedwater pumps and service water pumps) and of both turbogenerators. 2. Safety aspects With the transition of coolant flow from forced to natural circulation, a flow–power mismatch is likely to occur. Turbogenerator trip leads to a pressure increase that should be restricted by operation of MSVs. It will take some time for the emergency pumps to deliver water to the coolant circuit as the diesel generators will first have to be started and loaded.

For the integrity of fuel claddings to be confirmed, it is therefore essential to ensure that the following maximum values of fuel rod parameters are not exceeded: — Pellet volume averaged fuel enthalpy of 710 kJ/kg; — Fuel temperature of ∼2800°C; — Cladding temperature of 700°C. e. the acceleration of the steam–zirconium reaction at temperatures above 800°C. At 1000°C and above, the heat release from zirconium oxidation in steam becomes commensurate with the residual heat release in the fuel. The effect of the interaction of the cladding with steam is normally evaluated by the local depth of cladding oxidation, which implies an equivalent thickness of the oxidized layer.

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