By George F. Chadwick
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Extra info for A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process
The properties of visual perception are very important to daily life, for the visual world is an important part of the complex of space with which we are concerned. One important perceptual property is the visual recognition of pattern : the eye and mind tend to see pattern in things, an abstraction of certain features, perceived and refined. Pattern recognition is important in counting, for a small number of units is perceived without apparent counting, whereas more than 7 or 8 or 9 need to be counted to be identified correctly.
In chess, a master player playing simultaneous games blindfold can keep track of approximately 40 games and can play them out in about 6 hours. Assuming 40 double moves per game, the master learns one move every 14 seconds, which is enough to carry on a sophisticated strategy with a low cumulative error rate. If we take 3 bits per move, the player takes in about 0-2 bits per second for several hours, and makes purposeful use of it (Raisbeck, 1964). In piano playing the rate of transmission of expert pianists has been found to be about 22 bits per second, whilst the maximum rate of impromptu speaking is said to be about 26 bits per second, and the transmission rate of a person able to do "lightning" mental arithmetic computation is about 24 bits per second (Quastler and Wulff, c.
The weighing of values leads to the formulation of ideals, to the setting of goals and the marking out of objectives in daily conduct ; a complex system that will be discussed later. Holding values, of whatever sort, motivates man to activity : he does things with certain ends in view, whether the aim is to pay the grocery bill, climb the north face of the Eiger, or to marry the girl next door. These activities are place-related, in the sense that some occur in geographically limited areas which we may call activity spaces: "within-interaction", as distinct from the flows which arise as "between-interaction" when one activity is related to another.