A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and by Allan Bonnick, Derek Newbold

By Allan Bonnick, Derek Newbold

This article covers the entire obligatory and renowned not obligatory devices of the IMI Technical certificate and NVQ point 1 & 2 syllabus, from well-being and protection rules to fault discovering and changing parts. absolutely up-to-date, it additionally has motor vehicle upkeep approaches built-in all through, making it the necessary first lecture room and workshop textual content for all scholars of motorized vehicle engineering, apprentices and prepared amateurs. The textual content is made available to all degrees of skill via its transparent, logical technique, very good illustrations and step by step improvement of idea and perform. there's information on getting ready portfolios of proof, and functional workouts are incorporated to illustrate real workshop perform. *

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This is known as valve overlap when shown on the valve-timing diagram. Engines and lubrication 25 Fig. 15 Valve-timing diagrams (a) four-cylinder OHV engine, (b) four-cylinder OHC engine Fig. 10 Variable Valve timing Valve timing is normally a compromise in design that aims to achieve good performance across the operating speed range of the engine. 15. The period, at the piston top dead centre position, when both valves are open together, is known as valve overlap. It is normally fixed. However, early opening and late closing of the inlet valve has an unhelpful effect 26 A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance on low engine speed emissions and design developments, such as variable valve timing, have been introduced to improve emissions and other aspects of engine performance.

One of the popular types used is the ‘hot wire’ dipstick where a resistance wire is fitted inside the hollow stick between the oil level marks. 5 seconds at the instant the ignition is switched on. If the wire is not in the oil it overheats and an extra electrical resistance is created which signals the ECU (electronic control unit) to operate the driver’s warning light. This is illustrated in Fig. 53. Learning tasks 1. What would be the effects of running an engine with the oil level (a) above the maximum, and (b) below the minimum on the dipstick?

For extreme operating conditions the valve stem is 30 A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance Fig. 21 The camshaft. The shape of a camshaft lobe is designed to give required performance with least strain on valve gear made hollow and partly filled with sodium, which is a very soft metal having a melting point of approximately 98  C. Under running conditions it is molten, and in splashing from end to end of the valve stem it assists the transfer of heat from the hot valve head to the valve stem.

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