By Wayles Browne, Theresa Alt
Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are 3 standardized types in line with very comparable linguistic fabric. for lots of humans the time period "language" capability standardized kind of a language, and during this which means we will communicate of a Bosnian language, a Croatian language, and a Serbian language. "Language" can be a method that enables communique, and during this that means we will think of all 3 to make up one language. Serbo-Croatian was once the normal time period. The non-native learner will frequently are looking to decide to pay attention to Bosnian or Croatian or Serbian, yet studying any of those actively plus a few wisdom of the diversities will let the learner to participate within the communique process during the entire sector. This description will use the time period BCS to indicate what the 3 criteria have in universal. the diversities in grammar aren't very a variety of and may be mentioned as we move alongside. the diversities in vocabulary are extra a variety of; a few could be mentioned within the vocabulary part.
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Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are 3 standardized kinds in accordance with very related linguistic fabric. for plenty of humans the time period "language" ability standardized kind of a language, and during this that means we will communicate of a Bosnian language, a Croatian language, and a Serbian language. "Language" is usually a method that enables communique, and during this which means we will be able to examine all 3 to make up one language.
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Extra info for A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian
Umeju, Ijekavski umijem umiješ ... umiju ; the imperative is umej, umij. L-participles are Ekavski umeo umela, Ijekavski umio umjela. Razum(j)eti 'to understand' and dosp(j)eti PF 'to arrive, succeed' also fit here. 3 Consonant-je- presents all have -a- in the infinitive stem which is lost in the present. The preceding consonant undergoes jotation: infinitive kaz-a-ti 'to say' perfective and imperfective, present kaz-je-m ⇢ kažem, kažeš, kaže, kažemo, kažete, kažu. 3) has present -išem. As kázati ⇢ kȃžēm shows, this type has the "falling or leftward" accent shift in the present; pokázati PF 'to show' becomes pòkāžēm.
The short endings differ in the forms italicized in Table 13 and in the shortness of singlevowel endings (nòvo versus long nȍvō). Nȍv and some other adjectives distinguish short-long accentually as well (though much variation among speakers exists). Short genitives and dative-locatives like nova, novu are most widespread in the Croatian standard. The short genitive ending -a is specially frequent in the qualifying genitive: čov(j)ek dobra srca 'a man of good heart'. 2 Soft stems differ from hard only in nominative-accusative neuter singular long lošē, short loše 'bad', masculine-neuter genitive lošeg(a), dative-locative lošem(u).
1 Descriptive adjectives are those that can be predicated and compared: dan je miran 'the day is peaceful', noć je mirnija 'the night is more peaceful'. They distinguish long and short declension, and their citation-form is short, as miran 'peaceful'. Relational adjectives are put together with a noun to give the meaning of a subtype (a peace treaty is a subtype of treaties). They do not make comparatives and hardly ever show up in the predicate (to stay with our English example, one 51 peace treaty is not more peace or less peace than another).